1. Final Proof of the Heliocentric Nature of our solar system.
2. Final Proof of the spherical nature of Earth
3. Invention of the Compass
4. The European voyages of exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries.
5. Invention of a machine to calculate Longitude
6. Birth of Climatology as a Discipline. Includes the birth of the sub-disciplines of meteor
7. Birth of Geomorphology as a Discipline. Two most important developments: unveiling of the phenomenon of erosion and the identification of the three rock types (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary)
8. Mapping of the constellations by the ancients.
9. Detailing of the Phases of the Moon and the understanding of the working of the tides
10. Development of the Mercator Projection for Mapping
11. Invention of SONAR and RADAR
12. Division of the Earth into 24 time zones
13. Calculation of the Circumference/Diameter of the Earth
14. Discovery and mapping of the Ocean’s important underwater currents
15. Understanding of the dynamics the Solar and Lunar Eclipses
16. Discovery of the Various Atmospheric levels: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere and later such structures as the Van Allen’s Belt and the Ozone layer
17. Invention of the first meaningful device to calculate longitude.
18. Invention of the Bathyscape.
19. Development of the Theory of Continental Drift
20. Setting up of the Global Position Satellite System
21. Invention of the High Altitude Balloon
22. Creation of the Beaufort scale for Wind velocity
23. Development of the Richter Scale for Earthquake measurement
24. Birth of the science of vulcanology
25. Determination of the effect of the Earth’s Precession on celestial star position