Friday, November 30, 2007

Civilizations/Empires/Nation States that have disappeared

The Hebrews/Jews have survived for over 3000 years as a people. The following is a list (off the top of my head) of civilizations/empires/nation states that have collapsed over the same time period. I am sure that there are many more that I have overlooked.

1. Thracians
2. Edomites
3. Philistines
4. Jebusites
5. Ammonites
6. Midianites
7. Amorites
8. Amalakites
9. Babylonians
10. Ancient Egyptians
11. Romans
12. Ionian and Doric Greeks
13. Phoenicians/Carthage
14. Myceneans
15. Celts
16. Ancient Britons
17. Gauls
18. Belgie
19. Cimmerians
20. Lydians
21. Medes
22. Persians - Archamenid, Sassanians and Safavids
23. Mongols
24. Ghazanians
25. Chole
26. Ghana
27. Mali
28. Songhai
29. Aksum
30. Kush
31. Ancient Libyans
32. Islamic Umayyads, Fatimids, Abbasids, Seljuk and Ottoman Turks
33. Crusader Kingdoms
34. Avars
35. Austro-Hungarian Empire
36. Vikings
37. Punt
38. Hellenic Greeks
39. Mamlukes
40. Saracens
41. Holy Roman Empire
42. Burgundians
43. Italian City States
44. Zhou, Three Kingdoms, Han, Qin, Sung, Tang, Yuan, Ming, Manchu dynasties of China
45. Soviet Union
46. The Third Reich
47. European Colonial States
48. Goths - Ostro and Visi
40. Olmecs
41. Toltecs
42. Nazca
43. Inca
44. Aztec
45. Mayan
46. Mohaica
47. Chavin
48. Chimu
49. Moguls
50. Byzantines
51. Phyrigians
52. Macedonians
53. Dacians
54. Illyrians
55. Wends
56. Trojans
57. Indo-Dravidians
58. Huns
59. Teutons
60. Old Zimbabweans
61. San
62. Sheba
63. Saxon Kingdoms
64. Normans
65. Korean Three Kingdoms
66. Vietnamese Annam
67. Cossack Kingdoms
68. Tamerlane's Empire
69. Etruscans
70. Griqua Territories
71. Old Hindu Kingdoms
72. Spanish Kingdoms of Navarre, Leon, Castille, Aragon, Granada
73. Prussia - Hegel's ideal state
74. Arab Pagan Kingdoms
75. Lombards

Sunday, November 4, 2007

1980s Quiz

1. An airliner belonging to which Country was shot over the Soviet Union in 1983?
2. This Prime Minister of Grenada was killed in a military coup. U.S. troops would then invade the island and institute military rule. Which Prime Minister was this?
3. At which USAF base in the UK did female peace campaigners initiate a permanent picket in 1983?
4. This man succeeded Menachem Begin as Prime Minister of Israel in 1983. Who was he?
5. A Philippine Opposition Leader, this man was shot at Manila Airport after flying home. Who was he?
6. This Nazi war criminal was put on trial in Lyon following extradition in Bolivia. Who was he?
7. This Country became an independent sultanate in 1984 and the 159th member of the United Nations. Which Country was this?
8. Which Temple did Sikh extremists occupy in Amritsar in 1984?
9. In which British City did an IRA bomb kill five people and injure 32 in 1984?
10. To which countries’ cabinet were the Rev. Allen Hendrickse and Amichand Rajbansi appointed in 1984?
11. What was the only state won by Walter Mondale in the 1984 Presidential Election?
12. Operation Moses was carried out to bring Jews from this Country to Israel. Which Country was this?
13. This Priest and Solidarity Supporter was beaten to death by the Secret Police in 1984. Who was he?
14. This man succeeded Yuri Andropov as General Secretary of the USSR. Who was he?
15. The UK and China agreed in 1984 that Hong Kong would be handed over to China in which year?

Answers to The 1980s (III)
1. South Korea. Two hundred and sixty nine people on board were killed.
2. Maurice Bishop.
3. Greenham Common.
4. Yitzhak Shamir.
5. Benigno Aquino.
6. Klaus Barbie.
7. Brunei
8. The Golden Temple. Two hundred and fifty deaths occurred during the course of events which resulted in its recapture by the Indian Army. Many Sikh members of the Army would mutiny to protest the Government’s action.
9. Brighton, during the Conservative Party Conference.
10. The South African Cabinet of President PW Botha. They were the first two non-white men to reach this position.
11. Minnesota, his home State.
12. Ethiopia
13. Father Jerzy Popieluzko.
14. Konstantin Chernenko.
15. 1997

Guy Fawkes Day - A History

After a five week hiatus I am back with a bang on Guy Fawkes Day.
See below for the full story

Reproduced by kind permission of the Gunpowder Plot Society

In May of 1604, Guy Fawkes met with Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright and Thomas Wintour at an inn called the Duck and Drake in the fashionable Strand district of London, and agreed under oath along with Percy to join the other three in the gunpowder conspiracy. This oath was then sanctified by the performing of mass and the administering of the sacraments by the Jesuit priest John Gerard in an adjoining room. Fawkes assumed the identity of John Johnson, a servant of Percy and was entrusted to the care of the tenement which Percy had rented. Around Michaelmas, Fawkes was asked to begin preparations for work on the mine, but these plans were delayed until early December as the Commissioners of the Union between England and Scotland were meeting in the same house. Eventually the work in the mine proved slow and difficult for men unused to such physical labours, and further accomplices were sworn into the plot.
About March 1605, the conspirators hired a cellar beneath Parliament, once again through Thomas Percy, and Fawkes assisted in filling the room with barrels of powder, hidden beneath iron bars and faggots. He was then despatched to Flanders to presumably communicate the details of the plot to Stanley and Owen.
At the end of August, he was back in London again, replacing the spoiled powder barrels, and residing at "one Mrs. Herbert's house, a widow that dwells on the backside of St. Clement's Church". He soon left this accommodation when his landlady suspected his involvement with Catholics. On 18 October he travelled to White Webbs for a meeting with Catesby, Thomas Wintour, and Francis Tresham to discuss how certain Catholic peers could be excluded from the explosion. On 26 October, the now famous Monteagle Letter was delivered into the hands of William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. Concern quickly erupted amongst the conspirators, but the letter's apparent vagueness prompted Catesby to continue with their plans.
On Wednesday 30 October, Fawkes, apparently ignorant of the letter's existence inspected the cellar again and satisfied himself that the gunpowder was still in place and had not been disturbed. On Sunday 3 November, a few of the leading conspirators met in London and agreed that the authorities were still unaware of their actions. However, all except Fawkes made plans for a speedy exit from London. Fawkes had agreed to watch the cellar by himself, having already been given the task of firing the powder, undoubtedly because of his munitions experience in the Low Countries where he had been taught how to "fire a slow train". His orders were to embark for Flanders as soon as the powder was fired, and to spread the news of the explosion on the continent.
On the following Monday afternoon, the Lord Chamberlain, Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, searched the parliament buildings accompanied by Monteagle and John Whynniard. In the cellar they came upon an unusually large pile of billets and faggots, and perceived Fawkes whom they described as "a very bad and desperate fellow". They asked who claimed the pile, and Fawkes replied that it was Thomas Percy's in whose employment he worked. They reported these details to the King, and believing, by the look of Fawkes "he seemed to be a man shrewd enough, but up to no good", they again searched the cellar, a little before midnight the following night, this time led by Sir Thomas Knyvett, a Westminster magistrate and Gentleman of the Privy Chamber. Fawkes had gone forth to warn Percy that same day, but returned to his post before night. Once again, the pile of billets and faggots was searched and the powder discovered, and this time Fawkes was arrested. On his person they discovered a watch, slow matches and touchwood. Fawkes later declared that had he been in the cellar when Knyvett entered it he would have "blown him up, house, himself, and all".
Early in the morning of 5 November, the Privy Council met in the King's bedchamber, and Fawkes was brought in under guard. He declined to give any information beyond that his name was Johnson and he was a servant of Thomas Percy. Further interrogations that day revealed little more than his apparent xenophobia. When questioned by the King how he could conspire such a hideous treason, Fawkes replied that a dangerous disease required a desperate remedy, and that his intentions were to blow the Scotsmen present back into Scotland.
King James indicated in a letter of 6 November that "The gentler tortours are to be first used unto him, et sic per gradus ad mia tenditur [and so by degrees proceeding to the worst], and so God speed your goode worke", as it [torture] was contrary to English common law, unless authorised by the King or Privy Council. Eventually on 7 November Guido's spirit broke and he confessed his real name and that the plot was confined to five men. "He told us that since he undertook this action he did every day pray to God he might perform that which might be for the advancement of the Catholic Faith and saving his own soul". The following day he recounted the events of the conspiracy, without naming names, then on the 9 November he named his fellow plotters, having heard that some of them had already been arrested at Holbeche. Guido's final signature, a barely legible scrawl, is testament to his suffering. There is no direct evidence as to what tortures were used on Guy Fawkes, although it is almost certain that they included the manacles, and probably also the rack.
On Monday 27 January 1606, the day of the capture of Edward Oldcorne and Henry Garnet, the trial of the eight surviving conspirators began in Westminster Hall. It was a trial in name only, for a guilty verdict had certainly already been handed down. The conspirators pleaded not guilty, a plea which caused some consternation amongst those present. Fawkes later explained that his objection was to the implication that the "seducing Jesuits" were the principal offenders.
On Friday, 31 January 1606, Fawkes, Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood and Robert Keyes were taken to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster and hanged, drawn and quartered "in the very place which they had planned to demolish in order to hammer home the message of their wickedness". Thomas Wintour was followed by Rookwood and then by Keyes. Guido, the "romantic caped figure of such evil villainy" came last. A contemporary wrote:
"Last of all came the great devil of all, Guy Fawkes, alias Johnson, who should have put fire to the powder. His body being weak with the torture and sickness he was scarce able to go up the ladder, yet with much ado, by the help of the hangman, went high enough to break his neck by the fall. He made no speech, but with his crosses and idle ceremonies made his end upon the gallows and the block, to the great joy of all the beholders that the land was ended of so wicked a villainy"..